In this type of dialysis, an artificial kidney called a hemodialyzer removes the waste from the blood. The doctor performs surgery in arm or leg to create a pathway from the artery to the hemodialyzer. Sometimes the doctor will join the artery to the vein, creating a bigger blood vessel called a fistula. The doctor can also put a shaft, called a graft, in between the artery and vein. Occasionally, a catheter is inserted into the vein in the neck. Hemodialysis is usually done 3 times a week for 4 hours at a hospital, a clinic separate from the hospital, or at home.